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Winter & Summer Olympics: Country Histories

The term was coined in 1756 for the grouping of Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea and their neighboring islands.
This term was used to designate these countries in the 1908 and the 1912 Olympic Games.

British India
India was under British rule until January 26th, 1950. Medals not listed under, but are credited to India, are listed here.

Commonweath of Independent States
The alliance of nine former Soviet Republics, including: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Russia,
Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. It was created in December of 1991, and signaled the break up of the Soviet Union.

Congo DR and Congo
Stands for the Democratic Republic of Congo. It is different than the Republic of Congo, as the two countries are seperated
by the Congo River. The DR gained its independence from Belgium in 1960, while the Republic of Congo gained its independence
from France in 1960.

This country existed from 1918 until 1992, after which the country split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

East/West Germany
Germany was split into two in 1949. The areas ruled by the US, the UK, and France after the war were united into "West Germany,"
or the Federal Republic of Germany. The other half, ruled by the Soviets, formed the German Democratic Republic, or "East Germany."
The two were divided by the Berlin Wall, which was subsequently destroyed after the reunification of Germany in 1989-90.

Germany (until 1912)
The Germans were banned from participation in the 1920, 1924, and 1948 Games, following WWI and WWII. The medals won prior to
1912 are found here, and the medals won in 1928, 1932, and 1936 are found under the title of "Germany."

International Team
There were a variety of "mixed teams" or "international teams" that participated in the Olympics in the early 1900's, as this
type of team was accepted by the IOC. Any team with members from two or more countries were labeled as an International team.
Some examples include:
- The gold medal fencing team from the 1904 Olympics. The team consisted of two Cubans and one American.
- The 1904 silver medal winners of the 4 mile team race. The team was made up of four Americans and a Frenchman.
- The gold medal rowing team from 1900. The team was made up of three Dutch and one "unknown Frenchman." The identity
of this man is still unknown, as he was asked to join the team last-minute, and disappeared after the race.

Italy (until 1946)
Italy was known as "the Kingdom of Italy" until 1946. When Italy changed its status, becoming a Republic, the country was given
a new country code by the IOC (KIT became ITA). This is why Italy is listed twice on our country list.

South Africa (until 1960)
South Africa was ruled by the United Kingdom until it became a republic in May of 1961.

Virgin Islands US/UK
The Virgin Islands are divided into two regions. One half is owned by the United States and the other is owned by the United Kingdom.

The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was under UN sanctions and was not allowed to compete in the 1992 Olympics.
However, athletes from Yugoslavia were allowed to participate as "Independent Olympic Participants."

The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia existed from 1992 until 2003, and was the result of the seperation of the
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In 2004 it became the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro, which
seperated in 2007. Serbia and Montenegro are now independent countries.